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6.4 Pre-Rembrandtists and Caravaggists

The Pre-Rembrandtists and the followers of Caravaggio, two groups of artists who introduced and developed the Baroque storia formula within Dutch painting, are also well represented in Poland. There are paintings by Rembrandt’s teacher Pieter Lastman, The Pastoral Idyll in Gdańsk [i] and The Feast of Esther in Warsaw [i],1 and pictures by Jan Tengnagel and Nicolaes Moeyaert in Warsaw and in Łódź [i] [i] [i].2 Rembrandt’s studio mate Jan Lievens is the creator of two early – and surprisingly Caravaggesque – paintings from about 1625: A Boy Blowing on Coals and A Boy Lighting a Torch in the Museum of King Jan III’s Palace at Wilanów [i] [i].3

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Pieter Lastman   , Pastoral scene (Granida and Daifilo), dated 1624

Pieter Lastman  
Pastoral scene (Granida and Daifilo) dated 1624
oil paint / panel, 53 x 47 cm
lower center :  PL/1624 (PL in ligature)
18.64637 Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku54.35205, Gdańsk, no. MNG/SD/282/M



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Pieter Lastman   , The anger of Ahasverus; Haman begging Esther for mercy (Esther 1:10), 1618 or 1619

Pieter Lastman  
The anger of Ahasverus; Haman begging Esther for mercy (Esther 1:10) 1618 or 1619
oil paint / panel, 52 x 78 cm
upper center :  P. Lastman fecit A. 161[8/9]
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.558



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Jan Tengnagel   , Lot and his family fleeing Sodom (Genesis 19 : 15-18)

Jan Tengnagel  
Lot and his family fleeing Sodom (Genesis 19 : 15-18) (1599 - 1635)
oil paint / panel, 73,5 x 105 cm
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.175 MNW



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Claes Moeyaert   , Raising of Lazarus (Jn 11, 41–44), dated 16.4, probably 1654

Claes Moeyaert  
Raising of Lazarus (Jn 11, 41–44) dated 16.4, probably 1654
oil paint / panel, 83 x 118 cm
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.557 MNW



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Claes Moeyaert   , Joseph's blood-stained coat is brought and shown to Jacob (Genesis 37:32-35), dated 1624

Claes Moeyaert  
Joseph's blood-stained coat is brought and shown to Jacob (Genesis 37:32-35) dated 1624
oil paint / panel, 155 x 132 cm
lower right :  CL Mooyaert f./A.1624.
19.46667 Muzeum Sztuki w Lodzi51.75, Lódz, no. MS/SO/M/80



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Jan Lievens   , Young man with a pipe, blowing on glowing coals, c. 1625

Jan Lievens  
Young man with a pipe, blowing on glowing coals c. 1625
oil paint / panel, 82 x 64 cm
upper left :  J.Liviús
Muzeum Pałacu Króla Jana III w Wilanowie, Wilanów (Warsawa), no. Wil.1525



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Jan Lievens   , Boy lighting a torch, allegory of sight, c. 1625

Jan Lievens  
Boy lighting a torch, allegory of sight c. 1625
oil paint / panel, 82 x 64 cm
upper right :  J.Livius
Muzeum Pałacu Króla Jana III w Wilanowie, Wilanów (Warsawa), no. Wil. 1526



Northern Caravaggesque movement is further represented by compositions by Jan van Bijlert [i], Jan ter Borch [i], Jan Jansz. van Bronchorst [i] and Matthias Stom [i] in Warsaw4 and the Denial of Saint Peter from Dirck van Baburen’s workshop [i].5 A very interesting painting attributed to Matthias Stom, the Incredulity of Thomas, was signalled in St. Mary Magdalen’s church at Maszków [i].6

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Jan van Bijlert   , At the procuress'

Jan van Bijlert  
At the procuress' (1620 - 1649)
oil paint / canvas, 115 x 160 cm
upper right :  JvBijlert
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.1642 MNW



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attributed to Jan ter Borch   , The supper at Emmaus

attributed to Jan ter Borch  
The supper at Emmaus (1624 - 1646)
oil paint / canvas, 123 x 180 cm
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.2368 MNW



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possibly Johannes Jansz. van Bronckhorst   or circle of Jan van Bijlert   , Two young women and two young men making music, 1635-1645 or 1650-1656

possibly Johannes Jansz. van Bronckhorst   or circle of Jan van Bijlert  
Two young women and two young men making music 1635-1645 or 1650-1656
oil paint / canvas, 103,5 x 144,5 cm
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.532 MNW



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Matthias Stom   , Saint Peter in prayer, seated at a table by an oil lamp, c. 1633-1640

Matthias Stom  
Saint Peter in prayer, seated at a table by an oil lamp c. 1633-1640
oil paint / canvas, 104 x 128,5 cm
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.1890



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follower of Dirck van Baburen   , The denial of St. Peter

follower of Dirck van Baburen  
The denial of St. Peter (1620 - 1624)
oil paint / canvas on panel, 87 x 105 cm
19.93658 Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie50.06143, Kraków, no. MNK ND 850



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Matthias Stom   , Thomas touching the wound in Christ's side

Matthias Stom  
Thomas touching the wound in Christ's side (1615 - 1649)
oil paint / canvas, 150 x 110 cm
St. Mary Magdalen’s church (Maszków), Maszków



Polish collections boast two important paintings by Hendrik ter Brugghen, an early Pilate Washing His Hands in the Regional Museum in Lublin [i], and a late King David Playing the Harp in Warsaw [i].7 Wouter Crabeth from Gouda painted a dramatically Caravaggio-inspired theme in Card Sharps,  while Theodor Rombouts treated a similar subject in a more elegant manner (both in Warsaw) [i] [i]. Pendant paintings showing Bacchus and Ariadne from ca. 1620 in Poznań have been attributed both to the Caravaggionist Paulus Bor and to the Haarlem classicist Salomon de Bray [i] [i].8 Warsaw Museum owns a very fine painting by the latter’s brother Jan de Bray – Achilles among the Daughters of Lycomedes [i].9

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Hendrick ter Brugghen   , Pilate washing his hands (in innocence)

Hendrick ter Brugghen  
Pilate washing his hands (in innocence) (1603 - 1629)
oil paint / canvas, 100 x 128 cm
Muzeum Lubelskie w Lublinie, Lublin, no. S/Mal/1611 /ML



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Hendrick ter Brugghen   , King David playing the harp, surrounded by four angels, dated 1628

Hendrick ter Brugghen  
King David playing the harp, surrounded by four angels dated 1628
oil paint / canvas, 150 x 190 cm
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.529 MNW



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Wouter Pietersz.  Crabeth (II)   , Young courtisane playing cards with two men at a table, an old procuress in the background, after 1626

Wouter Pietersz.  Crabeth (II)  
Young courtisane playing cards with two men at a table, an old procuress in the background after 1626
oil paint / canvas, 134,7 x 169 cm
left center :  WCRABETH.F. (WC dooreen)
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.531 MNW



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Theodoor Rombouts   , Card players, c. 1636

Theodoor Rombouts  
Card players c. 1636
oil paint / canvas, 167,5 x 235,5 cm
lower right :  Theodor Rombouts
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.575



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attributed to Paulus Bor   , Bacchus, c. 1630

attributed to Paulus Bor  
Bacchus c. 1630
oil paint / canvas, 149 x 106 cm
16.92993 Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu52.40692, Poznań, no. MNP MO 883



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attributed to Paulus Bor   , Ariadne, c. 1630

attributed to Paulus Bor  
Ariadne c. 1630
oil paint / canvas, 149 x 106 cm
16.92993 Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu52.40692, Poznań, no. MNP MO 882



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Jan de Braij   , Achilles discovered among the daughters of Lycomedes, dated 1664

Jan de Braij  
Achilles discovered among the daughters of Lycomedes dated 1664
oil paint / canvas, 129 x 179 cm
bottom left of the middle :  JDBraij. 1664.
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.530





[1]

Klessmann 1988, cat. no. 1.

[2]

Jacob Despairing over Joseph's Bloody Coat by Moeyaert was a long–term deposit of the Museum of Art in Łódź in the National Museum in Warsaw, and returned in 2012: Tümpel 1974, part I, p. 83; part II, no. 43, fig.107; Michałkowa 1992, no. 91; Kacprzak 2003, cat. no. I.22, pp. 112–114.

[3]

Klessmann 1979, cat. nos. 6–7; Mieleszko 2005, cat. nos. 55–56.

[4]

These and other works of both northern and southern European Caravaggionists in: Kilian/Ziemba 1996.

[5]

Dec/Wałek 2010, p. 487.

[6]

Majoch 20062007; after the conservation treatment the painting’s attribution was confirmed and it will be published in a monograph prepared by Claudio Malice from the Accademia di Belle Arti de L’Aquila.

[7]

Klessmann 1988, cat. no. 3; Monkiewicz 1996.

[8]

Nicolson 1979; Blankert 1999, cat. nos. 21, 22.

[9]

Blankert 1999, cat. no. 57; Folga-Januszewska/Ziemba 2004, cat. no. 76.

Datum laatste wijziging: Aug 27, 2014 09:41 AM