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6.7 Dutch 17th-Century Portraiture, Landscape, Genre and Still Life Painting 

Dutch portraiture is equally abundant and all its styles are well represented in the Polish museums. Worth mentioning are: stately Portrait of Johann Maurits, Count of Nassau-Siegen  by Pieter Nason and an unconventional Portrait of a Man by the same artist, rendered behind a window, against the background of Jan van Goyen’s landscape, both in Warsaw [i] [i]; an exquisite full-figure Portrait of Prince Janusz Radziwiłl by David Bailly in the National Museum in Wrocław [i],1 a refined Portrait of a Youth by Jan Lievens, in the Wawel Castle in Kraków [i], based on Raphael’s famous work, a war loss from the Czartoryski collection; a patrician Portrait of Johanna de Geer-Trip with Her Daughter Caecilia by Ferdinand Bol in Warsaw [i], and a charming Little Boy in Polish Costume by Caspar Netscher in the Princes Czartoryski Museum in Kraków [i];

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Pieter Nason   , Portrait of Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen (1604-1679) as a knight of the order of Saint John of Jerusalem, dated 1666

Pieter Nason  
Portrait of Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen (1604-1679) as a knight of the order of Saint John of Jerusalem dated 1666
oil paint / canvas, 232 x 171 cm
center right :  PNason f.1666
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.527 MNW



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Pieter Nason   and attributed to Jan van Goyen   , Portrait of an unknown man, dated 1648

Pieter Nason   and attributed to Jan van Goyen  
Portrait of an unknown man dated 1648
oil paint / panel, 94 x 77,5 cm
lower right :  PNason f / 1648
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. NB 806 MNW



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David Bailly   , Portrait of Janusz Radziwiłł (1612-1655), c. 1632

David Bailly  
Portrait of Janusz Radziwiłł (1612-1655) c. 1632
oil paint / canvas, 202 x 114,7 cm
17.03333 Muzeum Narodowe we Wroclawiu51.1, Wrocław, no. VIII-578



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Jan Lievens   , Portrait of a young man with a moustache, c. 1662

Jan Lievens  
Portrait of a young man with a moustache c. 1662
oil paint / canvas, 100 x 81 cm
19.93658 Zamek Królewski na Wawelu50.06143, Kraków, no. 600



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Ferdinand Bol   , Portrait of Johanna de Geer-Trip (1627-1691) with her daughter Caecilia, dated 1661

Ferdinand Bol  
Portrait of Johanna de Geer-Trip (1627-1691) with her daughter Caecilia dated 1661
oil paint / canvas, 126 x 97 cm
lower left :  FBol./1661
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M. Ob. 556



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Caspar Netscher   , Boy in Polish dress drawing his sword, c. 1668-1672

Caspar Netscher  
Boy in Polish dress drawing his sword c. 1668-1672
oil paint / panel, 26 x 21,5 cm
19.93658 Muzeum Ksiazat Czartoryskich50.06143, Cracow, no.  12. 263



two compositions by Abraham van den Tempel: a charming portrait historié showing a Young Girl as Diana  in the Wilanów collection and a Group Portrait in the Landscape in the Museum of the Toruń University [i] [i], Bartholomeus van der Helst’s magnificent self-assured Self-Portrait [i]; and a Group Portrait in the Apothecary’s Shop ‘In de Spiegel’ at the Delft Wijnhaven  by Cornelis de Man in the National Museum in Warsaw[i];

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Abraham van den Tempel   , Portrait historié of a young woman as Diana, dated 166[9?]

Abraham van den Tempel  
Portrait historié of a young woman as Diana dated 166[9?]
oil paint / canvas, 104,7 x 89 cm
lower right :  A van den/Tempel 166[9?]
Muzeum Pałacu Króla Jana III w Wilanowie, Wilanów (Warsawa), no. Wil.1531



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Abraham van den Tempel   , Group portrait in a landscape

Abraham van den Tempel  
Group portrait in a landscape (1637 - 1672)
oil paint / canvas, ? x ? cm
Museum of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń



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Bartholomeus van der Helst   , Self-portrait with a miniature portrait of Mary Henrietta Stuart I (1631-1660), 1667-1669

Bartholomeus van der Helst  
Self-portrait with a miniature portrait of Mary Henrietta Stuart I (1631-1660) 1667-1669
oil paint / canvas, 83,5 x 65 cm
lower right :  B. van der hels feci.
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.491 MNW



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Cornelis de Man   , Group portrait in the apothecary's shop 'In de Spiegel' at the Delft Wijnhaven, c. 1670

Cornelis de Man  
Group portrait in the apothecary's shop 'In de Spiegel' at the Delft Wijnhaven c. 1670
oil paint / canvas, 90 x 112 cm
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.22 MNW



a small full-figure  Portrait of a Young Man with Greenery in the Background by Dirck van Santvoort in Łódź [i];2 a Portrait of a Boy  from 1654 now attributed to Pieter van Noort,  and Jan Verkolje’s very attractive Portrait of a Youth with a Viola da Gamba , both in Kraków, Wawel [i] [i].3 Nicolaes Maes’ paintings are numerous in Polish collections, but of special interest is his signed and dated 1664 Portrait of the Sykes Family from Vestella in the Porczyński Foundation [i].4  

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Dirck Dircksz. Santvoort   , Portrait of a young man with greenery in the background, dated 164[9]

Dirck Dircksz. Santvoort  
Portrait of a young man with greenery in the background dated 164[9]
oil paint / panel (oak), 70,3 x 54,5 cm
lower right :  D. D. Santvoort / 164[9]
19.46667 Muzeum Sztuki w Lodzi51.75, Lódz, no. MS/SO/M/134



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attributed to Pieter van Noort   , Portrait of a 9-year-old boy, dated 1654

attributed to Pieter van Noort  
Portrait of a 9-year-old boy dated 1654
oil paint / panel, 148,5 x 116,5 cm
center right :  Æt. 9
center right :  A° 1654
19.93658 Zamek Królewski na Wawelu50.06143, Kraków, no. 1000



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Jan  Verkolje (I)   , Portait of a youth with a viola da gamba, c. 1672

Jan  Verkolje (I)  
Portait of a youth with a viola da gamba c. 1672
oil paint / canvas, 51,5 x 41 cm
19.93658 Zamek Królewski na Wawelu50.06143, Kraków, no. 2120



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Nicolaes Maes   , The Sykes family of Westella, dated 1664

Nicolaes Maes  
The Sykes family of Westella dated 1664
oil paint / canvas, 95,5 x 169 cm
21.01178 Muzeum Kolekcji im. Jana Pawla II52.22977, Warszawa



The ‘lower’ categories of paintings – landscape, genre scenes and still life – are also plentiful in Polish collections. This kind of art dominated the cabinets of Dutch paintings that were fashionable in aristocratic residences from the 17th century onwards. The main tendencies in 17th century landscape painting are quite well represented. There are realistic, tonal works by Salomon van Ruysdael, Jan van Goyen, Pieter de Molijn and many others in Poznań5 and an early Landscape with Hunters  by Cornelis Vroom in Kraków [i];6 some Baroque and fantastic landscapes by Jacob van Ruisdael and Allaert van Everdingen, and Italianate works by Bartholomeus Breenbergh [i] and Daniel Vertangen [i], are to be seen in Warsaw and Poznań.

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Cornelis Hendriksz. Vroom   , Landscape with hunters, c. 1628-1630

Cornelis Hendriksz. Vroom  
Landscape with hunters c. 1628-1630
oil paint / canvas, 85 x 115 cm
19.93658 Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie50.06143, Kraków, no. XII-A-573




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Bartholomeus Breenbergh   , Landscape with ruins and Christ with disciples on the way to Emmaus, dated 1632

Bartholomeus Breenbergh  
Landscape with ruins and Christ with disciples on the way to Emmaus dated 1632
oil paint / panel, 31 x 51 cm
lower left :  BBreenberch.fecit / ..1632
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.478 MNW




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Daniel Vertangen   , Arcadian landscape with Tobias and the angel

Daniel Vertangen  
Arcadian landscape with Tobias and the angel (1615 - 1684)
oil paint / panel, 53 x 65,5 cm
lower left :  D. Vertangen
16.92993 Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu52.40692, Poznań, no. MNP Mo 112



There are a couple of seascapes in Warsaw, for example by Lieve Verschuier [i] and Ludolf Bakhuizen  [i].

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Lieve Verschuier   , A Dutch man-of-war and small vessels in a breeze

Lieve Verschuier  
A Dutch man-of-war and small vessels in a breeze (1642 - 1686)
oil paint / panel, 59 x 83,5 cm
lower right :  L.VS
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.2174 MNW




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Ludolf Bakhuizen   , Storm near the coast, dated 1702

Ludolf Bakhuizen  
Storm near the coast dated 1702
oil paint / canvas, 97,8 x 128,5 cm
lower center :  LB (on a barrel)
below, right of the middle : 
21.01178 Zamek Królewski w Warszawie52.22977, Warszawa, no. ZKW/4121



Church and palace interiors are represented by signed works of Dirck van Delen in Poznań [i] , Daniel de Blieck in the Czartoryski collection in Kraków, in the Museum of Art at Łódź and in the National Museum in Warsaw [i]. The unquestionable masterpiece of this genre is Pieter Saenredam’s Interior of the St. Bavo’s Church in Haarlem (1635)7 in Warsaw [i], a compact, seemingly symmetrical composition exhibiting a very refined viewing point and a subtle interplay of perspective lines.

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Dirck van Delen   , Architecture (before the palace)

Dirck van Delen  
Architecture (before the palace) (1619 - 1671)
oil paint / canvas, 41 x 57,5 cm
16.92993 Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu52.40692, Poznań, no. MNP Mo 878



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Daniël de Blieck   , Terreace with columnade, dated 1656

Daniël de Blieck  
Terreace with columnade dated 1656
oil paint / panel, 33 x 40 cm
19.93658 Muzeum Ksiazat Czartoryskich50.06143, Cracow, no. XII-599



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Pieter Saenredam   , Interior of the St. Bavo-church in Haarlem, view of the southern ambulatory and the northern chancel wall, dated 1635

Pieter Saenredam  
Interior of the St. Bavo-church in Haarlem, view of the southern ambulatory and the northern chancel wall dated 1635
oil paint / panel, 33,8 x 27,8 cm
center :  Anno-Pieter Saenredam fecit 1635 (on the frieze above the triforium)
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.495



The broad thematic and stylistic spectrum of genre paintings comprises peasant scenes, elegant interiors, military scenes and allegorical compositions, such as those by Adriaen van de Venne in Warsaw and in the Wawel Castle [i] [i].

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Adriaen van de Venne   , A woman and a jester

Adriaen van de Venne  
A woman and a jester (1604 - 1662)
oil paint / panel, 54 x 75 cm
upper left :  Geckje met de kous
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.1720 MNW



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Adriaen van de Venne   , 'Beware', 1630-1635

Adriaen van de Venne  
'Beware' 1630-1635
oil paint / panel, 41,2 x 32,2 cm
on the back :  CVE
lower right :  Let op u selven
19.93658 Zamek Królewski na Wawelu50.06143, Kraków, no. 1120



An uncommon example of allegorical painting by Nicolaes Berchem, Virtue Conquers Violence  from 1670 in the latter museum should be mentioned here as a rarity [i].8 In this place, a spectacular case of a war loss and recovery is worth recalling: the only painting by Adriaen Brouwer in Polish collections was restored to the National Museum in Warsaw in 2002 thanks to the generosity of Johnny van Haeften [i].9

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Nicolaes Berchem   , Virtue conquering Violence: apotheosis of the Treaty of Munster (?), dated 1670

Nicolaes Berchem  
Virtue conquering Violence: apotheosis of the Treaty of Munster (?) dated 1670
oil paint / canvas, 166 x 137,5 cm
lower right :  Berchem F. anº 1670
19.93658 Zamek Królewski na Wawelu50.06143, Kraków, no. 1192



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Adriaen Brouwer   , Smoking peasants at a table, 1630s

Adriaen Brouwer  
Smoking peasants at a table 1630s
oil paint / copper, 17,5 x 22,9 cm
lower center :  A.B.
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. 76 484



The best examples of other petits-maîtres in Poland are: Travellers in a Grotto by Philips Wouwerman [i], the Choice between Youth and Wealth by Jan Steen [i] and the Officer Writing a Letter by Gerard ter Borch [i], all from Stanislaus Augustus’ collection, now in the National Museum in Warsaw,10 and another Wouwerman in the Warsaw Castle, originally in the same collection; a Karel Dujardin in Wrocław [i], and a signed and dated 1669 Lady and Her Maid by Michiel van Musscher in the Wawel Castle [i].11

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Philips Wouwerman   , Cave interior with travellers, first half of the 1640s

Philips Wouwerman  
Cave interior with travellers first half of the 1640s
oil paint / panel, 27,8 x 30,3 cm
lower right :  PH. W
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M. Ob. 487



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Jan Steen   , The choice between wealth and youth (unequal love), 1661-1663

Jan Steen  
The choice between wealth and youth (unequal love) 1661-1663
oil paint / panel (oak), 63,5 x 51,5 cm
lower left :  JSteen
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M. Ob. 497



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Gerard ter  Borch (II)   , Officer writing a letter, with a messenger, c. 1655-1665

Gerard ter  Borch (II)  
Officer writing a letter, with a messenger c. 1655-1665
oil paint / panel, 41 x 28,5 cm
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.493



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Karel Dujardin   , Departure of a hunting company, dated 1644

Karel Dujardin  
Departure of a hunting company dated 1644
oil paint / canvas, 40,8 x 35 cm
lower left :  K. DV IARDIN f./ 1664
17.03333 Muzeum Narodowe we Wroclawiu51.1, Wrocław, no. VIII-2286



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Michiel van Musscher   , Interior with a young woman and her maid, dated 1669

Michiel van Musscher  
Interior with a young woman and her maid dated 1669
oil paint / canvas, 74,5 x 64,5 cm
left center :  M: v: Musscher. Pinx. 1669
19.93658 Zamek Królewski na Wawelu50.06143, Kraków, no. 6721



Dutch still-life paintings, also quite numerous in Polish collections, range from an early, additive tabletop now atrributed to David Rijckaert II in Wrocław [i], a monochromatic Dessert by Willem Claesz. Heda [i] and a refined Still life with Utensils by Pieter Potter in Warsaw [i], through a flower piece by Abraham Mignon [i], pronk still lifes by Nicolaes van Gelder in Warsaw [i]12 and Simon Luttichuys in Poznań [i], to Vanitas compositions such as Gerrit van Vucht’s work in Poznań [i] and a Still Life with a Skull in Gdańsk, by Luttichuys [i]. Warsaw’s Royal Castle possesses an interesting trompe l’oeil by Cornelis Gijsbrechts [i].13
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attributed to David  Rijckaert (II)   , Still life with oysters, artichokes and olives, 1620s

attributed to David  Rijckaert (II)  
Still life with oysters, artichokes and olives 1620s
oil paint / panel, 55,5 x 61,5 cm
lower left : 
on the back :  LS
on the back : 
17.03333 Muzeum Narodowe we Wroclawiu51.1, Wrocław, no. VII-2282



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Willem Claesz. Heda   , Stil life with a fruitcake, wine, beer and nuts, dated 1637

Willem Claesz. Heda  
Stil life with a fruitcake, wine, beer and nuts dated 1637
oil paint / panel, 44,5 x 69,5 cm
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.583 MNW



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Pieter Potter   , Barn interior with utensils, dated 1631

Pieter Potter  
Barn interior with utensils dated 1631
oil paint / panel, 32,5 x 41,5 cm
lower right :  P. Potter f. 1631
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.450 MNW



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Abraham Mignon   , Still life with flowers and a bird's skeleton, 1670s

Abraham Mignon  
Still life with flowers and a bird's skeleton 1670s
oil paint / canvas, 102 x 84 cm
lower center :  AB. Mignon fecit
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. 127933



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Nicolaes van Gelder   , Sumptuous still life with a watch, c. 1663-1664

Nicolaes van Gelder  
Sumptuous still life with a watch c. 1663-1664
oil paint / panel, 57,5 x 43 cm
lower right :  N.V.Gelder
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. M.Ob.447 MNW



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Gerrit van Vucht   , Vanitas still life

Gerrit van Vucht  
Vanitas still life (1625 - 1697)
oil paint / panel, 32 x 47,5 cm
16.92993 Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu52.40692, Poznań, no. MNP Mo 98



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Simon Luttichuys   , Vanitas still life, c. 1635-1640

Simon Luttichuys  
Vanitas still life c. 1635-1640
oil paint / panel, 47 x 36 cm
18.64637 Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku54.35205, Gdańsk, no. MNG/SD/330/M



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Cornelis Norbertus Gijsbrechts   , Trompe l'oeil with kit, painter's implements, letters and miniature self-portrait, dated 1675

Cornelis Norbertus Gijsbrechts  
Trompe l'oeil with kit, painter's implements, letters and miniature self-portrait dated 1675
oil paint / canvas, 107,5 x 76 cm
lower center :  C.N. Gijsbrechts. 1675
center :  C.N. Gysbrech [...]
center :  Monsieur/Cornelius Gisbrechts/presentement en/Breslau
21.01178 Zamek Królewski w Warszawie52.22977, Warszawa, no. ZKW/679





[1]

Steinborn 2006, cat. no. 3.

[2]

Kacprzak 2003, cat. no. I.30.

[3]

Winiewicz-Wolska 2001, cat. nos. 43 (Lievens), 72, 88.

[4]

Kwiatkowski 1991, no.80.

[5]

Gołąb/Soćko 2008, pp. 106–107.

[6]

Dec/Wałek 2010, p. 492.

[7]

Klessmann 1988, cat. no. 20; Benesz 2013.

[8]

Winiewicz-Wolska 2001, cat. no. 4.

[9]

Johnny van Haeften, the art dealer in London, had acquired the painting on the art market, later sold it to one of his clients and after he had learned the painting’s provenance, repurchased it in order to return the picture to its legal owner.

[10]

Klessmann 1988, cat. nos. 23, 36, 38.

[11]

Winiewicz-Wolska 2001, cat. no. 63; numerous genre paintings are published in: Kolbiarz 2008.

[12]

Klessmann 1988, cat. no. 54 (P. Potter) and cat. no. 53 (N. van Gelder).

[13]

Folga-Januszewska/Ziemba 2004, cat. no. 32; Juszczak/Małachowicz 2013, cat. no. 148.

Datum laatste wijziging: Aug 27, 2014 06:29 PM