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3.3 Daniel Schultz and Andreas Stech

However, the works of the Danzig painter Daniel Schultz (c. 1615-1683), who alternated between working in Poland and Danzig, are almost astonishingly Dutch [i]. He received his first instruction from his uncle, Daniel Schultz (†1646), who had done some manneristically conceived pictures for Ladislaus IV.1 Schultz was probably in the Northern Netherlands in the late forties to study superior painting at its source. An early drawing, Apollo and the Muses [i] (the ostensibly fragmentary state of which has had scholars wracking their brains unnecessarily), is nothing other than a copy of an engraving by Hendrick Goltzius [i].2 However, he need not have travelled to the Northern Netherlands to become acquainted with Goltzius’ print!

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Daniel Schultz   , Portrait of a young man, possibly a self-portrait of Daniel Schultz (1615-1683), second half 1640s

Daniel Schultz  
Portrait of a young man, possibly a self-portrait of Daniel Schultz (1615-1683) second half 1640s
oil paint / canvas, 57 x 49,5 cm
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw, no. MP 2447 (d. 233128)



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Daniel Schultz   after Hendrick Goltzius   , The judgement of Midas in the contest between Apollo and Pan, c. 1630-1649

Daniel Schultz   after Hendrick Goltzius  
The judgement of Midas in the contest between Apollo and Pan c. 1630-1649
pen (technique) / paper, 404 x 523 mm
18.64637 Stadtmuseum Danzig54.35205, Gdańsk



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Andreas Hoffman   , Saint. Nicholas consecrated bishop of Mira by Christ and the virgin Mary, 1647

Andreas Hoffman  
Saint. Nicholas consecrated bishop of Mira by Christ and the virgin Mary 1647
oil paint / canvas, ? x ? cm
18.64637 Kościół św. Mikołaja w Gdańsku54.35205, Gdańsk



Schultz’s portraits of Danzig burghers show him at the height of his powers. His Portrait of Constantia von Holten (Danzig) [i], which dates from the seventies, still shows the sober, relaxed pose that we know from the Rembrandt School, though of course the execution reveals that the painter belonged to the generation of Bartholomeus van der Helst and Caspar Netscher.3 A family portrait of a Tartar nobleman, painted around 1655 (Zarskoje-Selo) [i],4 is even closer in execution to the Rembrandt School, Jan Victors in this instance. Thanks to his thorough Dutch schooling, Schultz excelled over all of his Danzig contemporaries.5

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Daniel Schultz   or Andreas Stech   , Portrait of Constance von Holten Schumann (1638-1680), 1674

Daniel Schultz   or Andreas Stech  
Portrait of Constance von Holten Schumann (1638-1680) 1674
oil paint / panel, 85 x 77 cm
18.64637 Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku54.35205, Gdańsk, no. SD/301/M



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Daniel Schultz   , Portrait of Dedesh Aga, emissary of the Khan of Crimean Tartars to the court of King John Casimir in Warsaw, with his entourage, 1664 (dated)

Daniel Schultz  
Portrait of Dedesh Aga, emissary of the Khan of Crimean Tartars to the court of King John Casimir in Warsaw, with his entourage 1664 (dated)
oil paint / canvas, 166 x 231 cm
30.31413 Hermitage59.93863, Saint Petersburg (Russia), no. GE-8540



In addition to his portraits, to which we add the 1677 Portrait of Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687) (Danzig, Municipal Library) as a late example [i] ,6 Schultz created a commissioned altarpiece of 1675 for Saint-Germain-des-Près, where Ladislaus lies buried, as well as battle pieces for his successor, which have been lost.7 The animal still lifes (Schwerin and Stockholm) [i] [i] [i] which have probably rightly been attributed to him, reveal more of a dependence on the Flemings, whereas a bird still life in a Bremen private collection [i] conforms to works by [Elias and Jan] Vonck, Willem van Aelst, or Hendrik de Fromentiou, which enjoyed international recognition.

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Andreas Stech   , Portrait of Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687), 1677 (dated)

Andreas Stech  
Portrait of Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687) 1677 (dated)
oil paint / canvas, 125 x 103 cm
Biblioteka Gdańska PAN (Polska Akademia Nauk)54.35205, 18.64637, Gdańsk, no. EM-1



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Daniel Schultz   , Duck hunt, 1658 (dated)

Daniel Schultz  
Duck hunt 1658 (dated)
oil paint / canvas, 114 x 116 cm
18.64637 Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku54.35205, Gdańsk, no. SD/366/M



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Daniel Schultz   , Three foxes fighting over a dead pigeon, 1660 (dated)

Daniel Schultz  
Three foxes fighting over a dead pigeon 1660 (dated)
oil paint / canvas, 67 x 94 cm
18.64637 Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku54.35205, Gdańsk, no. SD/356/M



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Daniel Schultz   , Woman with a dead hare: Allegory of Autumn, dated 166[.]

Daniel Schultz  
Woman with a dead hare: Allegory of Autumn dated 166[.]
oil paint / canvas, 136 x 101 cm
18.0649 Nationalmuseum Stockholm59.33258, Stockholm, no. NM 293



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Daniel Schultz   , A pigeon and other dead singing birds on a partly draped stone ledge

Daniel Schultz  
A pigeon and other dead singing birds on a partly draped stone ledge (1646 - 1670)
oil paint / canvas, ? x ? cm
Private collection



The Danzig artist Andreas Stech (c. 1635-1697) continued the Dutch tradition in Danzig.8 As he did not travel abroad, he must have modeled his work on the example of Schultz and other Dutch paintings in Danzig collections. His Self Portrait (Danzig, Stadtmuseum) [i] is again in the style of Rembrandt and may best be compared to works by Jacob Adriaensz. Backer. He probably executed the work before dated portraits of the 70s and 80s, in which a Flemish-French elegance, as we know it from late Maes and Weenix portraits, becomes discernible. In addition, we can determine that the Dutch sobriety and sound painterly conception last longer with Schultz, as well as with Stech, than in the Dutch Republic itself, which was more open to French influence. What we here deem to be of positive value could from another point of view be called provincial backwardness. A good example of Stech’s portraiture is Captain with a Coin (Danzig) [i]. A small masterpiece is Promenade before the Tower of Danzig [i], of which the small-scaled portraits deserve to be compared with Gerard ter Borch the Younger and Thomas de Keyser, while the handling of the Captain is more Rembrantesque, in the sense of Samuel van Hoogstraten.9

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Andreas Stech   , Self portrait of Andreas Stech (1625-1697), c. 1675

Andreas Stech  
Self portrait of Andreas Stech (1625-1697) c. 1675
oil paint / panel, 64 x 55 cm
18.64637 Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku54.35205, Gdańsk, no. SD/364/M



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Andreas Stech   , Portrait of a young man with a medal, c. 1678-1680

Andreas Stech  
Portrait of a young man with a medal c. 1678-1680
oil paint / canvas, 78 x 63 cm
18.64637 Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku54.35205, Gdańsk, no. M/549



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Andreas Stech   , Group of men and boys on a stroll in a landscape with the city of Gdansk in the background, c. 1670

Andreas Stech  
Group of men and boys on a stroll in a landscape with the city of Gdansk in the background c. 1670
oil paint / canvas, 86,2 x 113 cm
10.52673 Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum52.26594, Braunschweig, no. 556



We also know of a few flower pieces by Stech [i] [i] [i]. They used to be wrongly attributed to Ottomar Elliger the Elder, which does give a good indication of their style. They are generally more sober and rougher than their models and, once again, one might be inclined to relate them to Dutch developments of a few decades before and to date them earlier. It is nevertheless incorrect to constantly want to compare Danzig painting to Dutch art. The former had its own national character, which favored sober and linear qualities over rich and painterly ones. 

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Andreas Stech   , Flowers in a sculpted bronze vase on a partly draped ledge, c. 1678-1680

Andreas Stech  
Flowers in a sculpted bronze vase on a partly draped ledge c. 1678-1680
oil paint / canvas, 120 x 90 cm
18.64637 Stadtmuseum Danzig54.35205, Gdańsk



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Andreas Stech   , Flowers in a Delft vase, 1670s

Andreas Stech  
Flowers in a Delft vase 1670s
oil paint / panel, 69 x 53 cm
18.64637 Stadtmuseum Danzig54.35205, Gdańsk



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Andreas Stech   , Flowers in a glass vase, c. 1678

Andreas Stech  
Flowers in a glass vase c. 1678
oil paint / canvas, 63 x 46 cm
10.89851 Städtische Kunstsammlungen Augsburg48.37154, Augsburg



Stech also rendered illustrations for the botanical books of Johannes Hevelius [i] [i] [i], whose portrait Schultz had painted, and of Jacob Breyn [i].10 It was probably under Stech’s direction that the two daughters of Breyn and Frau Gralath carried out the drawings of insects.

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Isaak Saal   after Andreas Stech   , Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687) with the Azimuth Quadrant, 1673

Isaak Saal   after Andreas Stech  
Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687) with the Azimuth Quadrant 1673
copper engraving / paper, 384 x 233 mm
Biblioteka Gdańska PAN (Polska Akademia Nauk)54.35205, 18.64637, Gdańsk, no. Ta 2563 2° (inventarisnummer hele boek)



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Isaak Saal   after Andreas Stech   , Species from the pea family, 1678

Isaak Saal   after Andreas Stech  
Species from the pea family 1678
copper engraving / paper, 383 x 222 mm
-3.70256 Biblioteca Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid40.4165, Madrid, no. 751 (ref. nr.) 695704000001 (barcode)



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Isaak Saal   after Andreas Stech   , Johannes Hevelius and his wife Katherine with a great Octant, 1673

Isaak Saal   after Andreas Stech  
Johannes Hevelius and his wife Katherine with a great Octant 1673
copper engraving / paper, 384 x 233 mm
Biblioteka Gdańska PAN (Polska Akademia Nauk)54.35205, 18.64637, Gdańsk, no. Ta 2563 2° (inventarisnummer hele boek)



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Lambert Visscher   after Andreas Stech   , Frontispiece of Jacob Breyne's 'Plantarum Exoticarum' (1678), 1678

Lambert Visscher   after Andreas Stech  
Frontispiece of Jacob Breyne's 'Plantarum Exoticarum' (1678) 1678
copper engraving / paper, 378 x 233 mm
-3.70256 Biblioteca Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid40.4165, Madrid, no. 751 (ref. nr.) 695704000001 (barcode)



In 1671 Stech received a commission for the interior decoration of the Cistercian church of Pelplin [i] [i] [i]. The grisaille preparatory studies are kept in the museum in Danzig [i] [i].11 As was customary with ecclesiastical commissions, Andreas Stech turned to Flemish art for inspiration.12

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Andreas Stech   , The baptism of the eunuch (Acts 8:26-40), voor 23 februari 1673

Andreas Stech  
The baptism of the eunuch (Acts 8:26-40) voor 23 februari 1673
oil paint / canvas, 300 x 145 cm
Bazylika katedralna Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny w Pelplinie, Pelplin



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Andreas Stech   , Christ and the Canaanite woman, 1689-1696

Andreas Stech  
Christ and the Canaanite woman 1689-1696
oil paint / canvas, 290 x 438 cm
Bazylika katedralna Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny w Pelplinie, Pelplin



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Andreas Stech   , The marriage-feast at Cana (John 2:1-11), 1689-1696

Andreas Stech  
The marriage-feast at Cana (John 2:1-11) 1689-1696
oil paint / canvas, 290 x 308 cm
Bazylika katedralna Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny w Pelplinie, Pelplin



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Andreas Stech   , Christ and the Canaanite woman, 1689

Andreas Stech  
Christ and the Canaanite woman 1689
grisaille / paper, 183 x 355 mm
16.92993 Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu52.40692, Poznań, no. PTPN 1426



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Andreas Stech   , Christ washing the feet of Saint Peter (John 13:1-20), 1689

Andreas Stech  
Christ washing the feet of Saint Peter (John 13:1-20) 1689
grisaille / paper, 237 x 360 mm
16.92993 Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu52.40692, Poznań, no. PTPN 1427



Compared to Schultz and Stech the other portraitists lose in significance. Nevertheless, we should mention Bartholomäus Strobel (1591-after 1650) [i],13 an artist from Thorn who was active as a portraitist and church painter between 1639 and 1648,14 because he introduced his Dutch colleague Gillis Schagen (1616-1668) to King Ladislaus IV, for whom Schagen must have worked for a while [i].15

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Bartholomäus Strobel   , Portrait of Martin Opitz van Boberfeld (1597-1639), c. 1636-1637

Bartholomäus Strobel  
Portrait of Martin Opitz van Boberfeld (1597-1639) c. 1636-1637
oil paint / canvas, 113,5 x 92,5 cm
Biblioteka Gdańska PAN (Polska Akademia Nauk)54.35205, 18.64637, Gdańsk, no. 2IV4435



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Anonymous   possibly Gillis Schagen   , Panoramic view of Elbing with a convoy of soldiers, 17th century

Anonymous   possibly Gillis Schagen  
Panoramic view of Elbing with a convoy of soldiers 17th century
oil paint / copper, 9,3 x 31,6 cm
London (England) (Sotheby's), 2004-07-06, no. 440





[1]

[Van Leeuwen 2013] However, Daniel Schultz was not related to the Daniel Schultz, who died in 1646. Nor was he a member of a family of artists (Steinborn 2004, p. 232).

[2]

[Gerson 1942/1983] Bartsch 149; Holllstein 132. Cuny-Elberfeld 1915, with many illustrations of the work of D. Schultz. See also: Secker 1913A; Biermann 1914, fig. nos. 191 and 324; Drost 1938, pp. 131ff. [Van Leeuwen 2013] Sadly, the drawing has been lost since 1944.

[3]

[Van Leeuwen 2013] The attribution to Schultz is not completely undisputed; Teresa Grzybkowska attributes the painting to Andreas Stech (Grzybkowska 1973, pp. 42-44).

[4]

[Gerson 1942/1983] According to Drost the picture is dated 1664 (Drost 1938, pp. 131-132); at the Petersburg exhibition of 1908 (no. 243) the date was read as 1654 (Von Schmidt 1909, p. 184).

[5]

[Gerson 1942/1983] Secker 1913A, pp. 51-52 also discerns French influence, which is not clear to me.

[6]

[Van Leeuwen 2013] The traditional attribution to Daniel Schultz is overruled by the attribution to Andreas Stech and confirmed by the finding of Stech’s signature on the second version of the painting in the Museum of the History of the Sciences in Oxford (Grzybkowska 2012, pp. 289-290).

[7]

[Van Leeuwen 2013] The church of Saint-Germain-des-Près does not contain the mausoleum of Ladislaus IV, but of his brother John II Casimir (1609-1672), whose was portrayed several times by Schultz (see RKDimages 238425 and 238429).

[8]

[Gerson 1942/1983] Illustrations in Danzig 1919; Drost 1938, pp. 143-144; Abs 1937, p. 42.

[9]

[Gerson 1942/1983] Illustrations in Biermann 1914, nos. 184 and 182.

[10]

[Van Leeuwen 2013] Intended here is the portrait by Stech, not Schultz (RKDimages 231036; see note 3 above).

[11]

[Van Leeuwen 2013] Andreas Stech worked for many years for the cathedral of Pelplin (Bazylika katedralna Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny w Pelplinie). The first decoration pieces were made in the early 1670s. The last ones, executed between 1689 and 1696, served to decorate the cloister of the cathedral, then Cisterician church. As preparatory studies Stech painted small grisailles, of which at least four have survived (Grzybkowska 1973, pp. 50, 52-53, nos. 39-40, 44 and 46) evenly divided between the National Museums in Poznań and Gdańsk.

[12]

[Van Leeuwen 2013] The ‘Flemish inspiration’ may be visible in some of these compositions. The Baptism of the Eunuch (RKDimages 233947), however, shows knowledge of Rembrandt’s treatment of the subject (see also Grzybkowska 1973, p. 27).

[13]

[Gerson 1942/1983] On B. Strobel, whose style also underwent Dutch influence, see Scheyer 1932-1933. [Van Leeuwen 2013] According to M. Walicki, Strobel portrayed his sitters in the manner of Michiel van Mierevelt, but more specifically he imitated Jan van Ravesteyn, Dirck Santvoort and Nicolaes Eliasz. Pickenoy (Walicki 1949). Tylicki agrees entirely with Walicki and points out that the Portrait of Duke Ulrik of Denmark, painted by Strobel for Christian IV in 1633 (burnt in 1859 in Frederiksborg, but known from copies; see RKDimages 238371), was based in its unusual pose on figures in Dutch militia ('schutter') group portraits, which were then only rarely copied in prints. Tylicki concludes that Strobel must have seen them in person in Amsterdam, Haarlem or some other Dutch town (Tylicki 2000, vol. 1, p. 534). According to Ursula de Goede-Broug, Fred Meyer and Sabine Craft-Giepmans (RKD), however, Strobel’s portraits are related to the school of Cologne, among others to Gotthardt de Wedig. On the other hand, in general, portraits by Wedig are more stiff than those by Strobel.

[14]

[Van Leeuwen 2013] Paintings are now known from about 1620 on, the earliest work being a drawing dated 1613 in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford (Tylicki 2000, vol. 2, p. 78, no. II.1.4; see also vol. 1, p. 532).

[15]

[Van Leeuwen 2013] Houbraken mentions a portrait of Stanislaus (read: Ladislaus) king of Poland, painted by Schagen in Elbing in 1637 (Hofstede de Groot 1921, p. 17). Gerson jumped to the conclusion that Schagen must have worked for the King for a while.

Datum laatste wijziging: Nov 18, 2013 01:18 PM