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3.4 Genre and Decoration Painters

The brothers Christoffel (1659-1729) and Teodor Lubieniecki (c. 1653-1729) achieved international renown.1 Both studied in Amsterdam around 1675 with Gerard de Lairesse, whose style they absorbed so well that one can identify the foreigners only by their names. Christoffel remained in the Northern Netherlands, where, in addition to portraits, he rendered genre scenes in which the types of Adriaen van Ostade and Richard Brakenburgh have degenerated into caricature [i]. Theodor worked at several foreign courts (Tuscany, Hanover, Berlin and Dresden), returning to Poland only in 1706. His portraits (National Museum in Warsaw) resemble the late work of Nicolaes Maes quite closely [i]. With the Lubenieckis we already arrive at the decorative and genre painting of the close of the century. However, we first need to turn back to early pictures of this kind.

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Christoffel Lubieniecki   , Young man showing a dead duck, 1729 (dated)

Christoffel Lubieniecki  
Young man showing a dead duck 1729 (dated)
oil paint / canvas, 36,5 x 30 cm
lower left :  CLubienietzki 1729
19.93658 Zamek Królewski na Wawelu50.06143, Kraków, no. 1078



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Teodor Lubieniecki   , Family portrait in a park, before 1700

Teodor Lubieniecki  
Family portrait in a park before 1700
oil paint / canvas, 101 x 125,5 cm
21.01178 Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie52.22977, Warsaw



We do not know of a single painting by Pieter Wiggertsz (†1673) of Danzig, who married in Amsterdam in 1644 [1664, ed.], when 32 years old.2 With Laurence Neter (1600/1604-1652) of Elbing (Elbląg), we have only a few pictures and know nothing about his life.3 Like the German painter Godaert Kamper (1613/1614-1679), he painted guardrooms in the manner of Anthonie Palamedesz., whose dates lie somewhere between 1631 and 1649 [i] [i] [i]. In all probability Neter learned to paint in the Northern Netherlands.4 Antonie Waterloo (1609-1690) who stopped off in Hamburg, must have continued the journey by ship to have been able to draw in the surroundings of Danzig. The Hamburg Kunsthalle has a View of the Oliva Cloister [i] [i], with another prospect of Danzig found in Warsaw’s University Library.5

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Laurence Neter   , Young woman wearing a turban, dated 1637

Laurence Neter  
Young woman wearing a turban dated 1637
oil paint / panel, 29 x 24 cm
lower right :  LDN f. 1637
London (England)Londen (Engeland) (Christie's), 1953-04-17, no. 138



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Laurence Neter   , Elegant company playing cards in an interior, dated 1638

Laurence Neter  
Elegant company playing cards in an interior dated 1638
oil paint / panel, 19 x 25 cm
left :  Laurence Netter Fecit. A: 1638
18.0649 Nationalmuseum Stockholm59.33258, Stockholm, no. NM540



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Laurence Neter   , Elegant company in conversation in a loggia, dated 1641

Laurence Neter  
Elegant company in conversation in a loggia dated 1641
oil paint / copper, 24 x 36 cm
lower left :  LDN fecit.1641
4.88969 Kunsthandel P. de Boer52.37403, Amsterdam



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Anthonie Waterloo   , Monastery in Oliva near Gdańsk, c. 1660

Anthonie Waterloo  
Monastery in Oliva near Gdańsk c. 1660
pen and brush in grey / brown paper, 298 x 761 mm
10.01534 Hamburger Kunsthalle53.57532, Hamburg, no. 22703



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Anthonie Waterloo   , Buildings belonging to the Oliva convent, near Gdańsk; to the right the Karlsberg, c. 1660

Anthonie Waterloo  
Buildings belonging to the Oliva convent, near Gdańsk; to the right the Karlsberg c. 1660
black chalk / paper, 314 x 476 mm
Amsterdam (Sotheby's), 1998-11-10, no. 95



We know from Cornelis de Bie that Adriaen van de Venne (c. 1589-1662) rendered a large painting of the battle of Nieuwpoort for a Polish count [i].6 That ruler may well have been Krzysztof Radziwiłł (1585-1640), who bought pictures by Hendrick ter Brugghen7 and had his ‘effigiem’, which had been painted in Poland, copied by Michiel van Mierevelt and engraved by Willem Jacobsz. Delff [i].8 A related ruler, Janusz Radziwiłł (1612-1655) [i], field hetman of Lithuania, was also well-informed about Dutch art and artists.9 In 1651/3 he took on a Rotterdam painter, Abraham van Westerveld (c. 1620-1692), as war artist. This artist, who accompanied his master on his campaign against the Cossacks, drew extensively in Poland, especially military scenes, ruins, foreign villages and the city of Kiev. The original sheets appear to be lost, but copies of the 18th century give us a good idea of his art [i].10 Naturally his principal task was to celebrate the victories of his master. One painting of this series, which was still in the castle of the Radziwiłłs in the 18th century, had come via Russian hands to the Warsaw Royal Castle.11 It depicts the entry of Janusz Radziwiłł into Kiev in 1651 and is a typically Dutch picture (fig. 128) [i]. Westerveld probably returned home via Danzig, where he painted a portrait of Vasile Lupu (1595-1661), which had been engraved by Hondius [i].12 In 1654 Westerveld returned to Rotterdam from his Polish journey. He must have been an enterprising man, who also did not lack for civil courage, since he married five times, the last when in his seventies.13

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tapestry workshop of Maximiliaan van der Gucht   after design of Adriaen van de Venne   , The Battle at Nieuwpoort, 1647-1648

tapestry workshop of Maximiliaan van der Gucht   after design of Adriaen van de Venne  
The Battle at Nieuwpoort 1647-1648
woven (technique), 167 x 787 cm
4.34878 Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis50.85045, Brussels, no. 832



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Willem Jacobsz. Delff   after Michiel van Mierevelt   , Portrait of Krzystof II Radziwiłł (1585-1640), 1639 (dated)

Willem Jacobsz. Delff   after Michiel van Mierevelt  
Portrait of Krzystof II Radziwiłł (1585-1640) 1639 (dated)
etching and engraving / paper, 421 x 296 mm
4.88969 Rijksprentenkabinet52.37403, Amsterdam, no. RP-P-1888-A-13420



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Bartholomäus Strobel   , Portrait of Janusz Radziwiłł (1612-1655), c. 1635-1636

Bartholomäus Strobel  
Portrait of Janusz Radziwiłł (1612-1655) c. 1635-1636
oil paint / canvas, 110 x 87 cm
Muzeum Narodowe w Mińsku (Białoruś)53.9, 27.56667, Minsk, no. 3ж - 109



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after Abraham van Westerveld   , The Cossack Mezhyhirya Savior-Transfiguration Monastery near Kiev, 1792

after Abraham van Westerveld  
The Cossack Mezhyhirya Savior-Transfiguration Monastery near Kiev 1792
pen and brush / paper, ? x ? mm
21.01178 Biblioteka Uniwersytecka w Warszawie52.22977, Warszawa



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Abraham van Westerveld   , The entrance of ruler Janusz Radziwiłł in the conquered city of Kiev, in or shortly after 1651

Abraham van Westerveld  
The entrance of ruler Janusz Radziwiłł in the conquered city of Kiev in or shortly after 1651
oil paint / canvas, 129 x 392 cm
21.01178 Zamek Królewski w Warszawie52.22977, Warszawa



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Willem Hondius   and Dirk Janszoon van Santen   after Abraham van Westerveld   , Portrait of Vasile Lupu (1595-1661), 1651 (dated)

Willem Hondius   and Dirk Janszoon van Santen   after Abraham van Westerveld  
Portrait of Vasile Lupu (1595-1661) 1651 (dated)
copper engraving / paper, 331 x 221 mm
10.52673 Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum52.26594, Braunschweig, no. P-Slg. illum. 3.8





[1]

[Gerson 1942/1983] De Vries 1885, pp. 160 and 225. [Van Leeuwen 2013] See Przypkowski 1939.

[2]

[Gerson 1942/1983] Bredius 1915-1921, vol. 1, p. 104, n. 1; vol. 7, p. 289; equally obscure is Casperus Kollerus of Danzig, who married in Amsterdam in 1677 (De Vries 1885, p. 79).

[3]

[Van Leeuwen 2013] Meanwhile, some facts of his life have been published by K.E. Kandt and J. Tylicki (see RKDartists).

[4]

[Van Leeuwen 2013] Gerson based himself on the headword in Thieme/Becker 1907-1950, vol. 25 (1931), p. 397. According to Huys Janssen he may have settled in Middelburg shortly before 1639, when he was back in Gdansk (Huys Janssen 1992, p. 34). Besides guardrooms he painted portraits and merry companies. Even a religious subject has surfaced (RKDimages 119881).

[5]

[Gerson 1942/1983] Information supplied by K.H. Simon, Berlin. [Van Leeuwen 2013] Unfortunately this drawing has gone missing since 1939 (Sawicka/Sulerzyska 1960, p. 25, no. 79) and has yet to resurface (email Jolanta Talbierska, General Director of the University of Warsaw Library and Director of the Print Room and Historical Collections, to S. Erkens, 12 April 2013).

[6]

[Gerson 1942/1983] De Bie 1662, p. 234. [Van Leeuwen 2013] M. Royalton-Kisch identified this ‘painting’ with the tapestry by Maximiliaan van der Gucht after a design by Adriaen van de Venne, now in the Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis in Brussels. The Polish count mentioned by De Bie was not Krzysztof Radziwiłł, as Gerson suggested, but very probably Seweryn Gołuchowski (email from E. Buijsen to S. Erkens, 18 May 2013). This Polish nobleman came from a wealthy family in Sandomierz and lived in the Netherlands in the 1640’s. He studied in Franeker and Leiden and became standard-bearer of the civic guard in Groningen. It is not known if he ordered this tapestry for himself or as an intermediary. Probably it was a gift for the Prince of Orange, meant to advance Gołuchowski’s military career (Hennel-Bernasikowa 1995, pp. 254-255).

[7]

[Gerson 1942/1983] De Bie 1708, p. 277.

[8]

[Gerson 1942/1983] Franken 1872, no. 74.

[9]

[Van Leeuwen 2013] Janusz was actually the son of Krzysztof Radziwiłł. He studied at the University of Leiden in the early 1630s and was an informer to the States General in The Hague about the political situation in Poland. The sitter of a portrait painted by David Bailly in the Muzeum Narodowe we Wrocławiu could be Janusz Radziwiłł (RKDimages 57901).

[10]

[Van Leeuwen 2013] According to Batowski, the original drawings by Westerveld pertaining to Janusz Radziwiłł's Ukraine campaign of 1649-1651 (c. 100 sheets) were kept in the Radziwiłł castle in Nieśwież (today Belarus) at least until 1792, when the last King of Poland, Stanislaus Augustus, ordered them to be copied by an unknown hand (Batowski 1932). These copies (perished or vanished in 1935, 1939 or 1944/1945), in a much depleted number of 22, were kept in the 1930's in the Print Cabinet of the University of Warsaw. There were also six other copies in two further collections in Poland then, some of them presumably copies after copies. Only one original that Batowski knew has turned up, namely in the All-Ukrainian Historical Museum in Kiev (email J. Tylicki to S. Erkens, 4 August 2013).

[11]

[Gerson 1942/1983] Batowski 1932. Other paintings in Museum Bredius, The Hague (RKDimages 21847) and in the S. Meyer collection in Vienna (RKDimages 235049).

[12]

[Van Leeuwen 2013] Vasile Lupu was the father-in-law of Janusz Radziwiłł. He ruled over Moldavia from 1634 till 1653 (Thijssen 1992, p. 174).

[13]

[Gerson 1942/1983] Wiersum 1933; see also Bredius 1915-1921, vol. 5 p. 1773; vol. 7, p. 288.

Datum laatste wijziging: Apr 04, 2014 02:44 PM